Scientific Program

Day 1 :

  • STDs Prevention | Multimorbidity and Complications | Public Awareness and Knowledge of STDs
Speaker
Biography:

Sam Ocen has passion and expertise in programming and research in Adolescent Sexual Reproductive Health and Rights (ASRHR). He is an HIV and AIDS Fellow of Makerere University School of Public Health, and holds Msc. Population and Reproductive Health (PRH). He was the Principal Investigator of the PHDP study in Uganda. He worked alongside Population Council and GNP+. He is a member of the National Monitoring and Evaluation TWG of Uganda AIDS Commission (UAC) and the Technical Working Group (TWG) on Adolescent Health at the Ministry of Health. He participated at the Youth Leadership-1 programme, an esteemed Global programme, organized and facilitated by the US Department of State. He has been revewer of abstracts submitted by youth to the IAS International HIV conferences for over five years.   

Abstract:

Introduction: PHDP is a Global Policy Framework that highlights the importance of placing persons living with HIV at the center of managing HIV, their health and wellbeing. Studies have been done globally, but this being the first specifically focused on adolescents and YPLHIV. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which the PHDP approach is espoused in Uganda among YPHLIV. This study provided a baseline against which the effect of advocacy interventions to promote PDHP approach in Uganda will be measured. Methods: 275 YPLHIV were selected using non-random purposive sampling techniques from the districts of Gulu and Iganga and interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data was collected using tablets, managed using ACCESS and STATA packages. Findings: 46% viewed HIV prevention as a shared responsibility. 30% didn’t have ART in the areas where they lived and for those who accessed ART, 44% took 2 to 4 hours to get to their regular health care center.  13% never had CD4 count taken primarirly because they did not know. 30% could not disclose their status for fear of being left by partners. 19% used substances in form of drugs yet there was no drug rehabilitation center at all (0%). Only 10.5% knew of any laws protecting them and their rights and 72% couldn’t access free legal services. 59% experienced Gender violence, yet 54% of whom didn’t know of organizations providing support in this area. Conclusions and recommendations: Being an advocacy focused operatoinal study, there is need to empower YPLHIV with knowledge and information on policies to enable them demand for health services, address stigma and discrimination, for them to prevent HIV and other communicable diseases. YPLHIV need to be meaningfuly engaged in policy and program development for improved comprehensive HIV/SRH information and services.

Speaker
Biography:

Nelson Anti is the Programme manager & Public Health Lead for Actionplus Foundation – UK since 2012. He is also the project coordinator for Inspirational Charismatic Church Luton Education Centre since 2014. He is a qualified teacher and he teaches at Brooke House College, UK as an academic tutor. Mr Anti is a postgraduate degree holder in Public Health (MPH), which was awarded to him by the School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR) at the University of Sheffield, UK.  He holds a Bachelor of Science degree, Teachers' Certificate ‘A’ (Maths and Agriculture Sciences) and DBS Computer Literacy pursued at the University of Cape Coast and African Virtual University, Cape Coast, Ghana respectively. He is a qualified and an accredited member of Community Safety Scheme in Hertfordshire Borough, UK and a member of British HIV Association, UK. 

Abstract:

Background: The rate of HIV infections among men who have sex with other men and heterosexual black African people are alarming in Luton. There are 622 people in Luton who are HIV positive accessing care, of which 409 are of Black African origin. In the UK, a leading Pastor in the black African and Caribbean Churches is a very influential figure. His role is pivotal in encouraging HIV/AIDS patients to take prescribed medicine as well as participating in prayer. Sadly, recent investigation by health agencies and the media exposed major concerns that some Pastors are advising their church members not to take a HIV test and to refrain from taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) or Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). Some Pastors prefer to teach that prayer alone will provide a cure. Those who adhered to this ignorant approach were not well served by their Pastors. In 2011, the BBC reported that Evangelical Christians Pastors claims that prayer alone could cure HIV/AIDS caused three deaths in London. The black African people are advised to have a regular HIV test. However, the uptake of HIV testing is very low due to rejection, shame, fear of contracting HIV and choosing not to know my status syndrome. In 2016, the Actionplus Foundation–UK designed a project aimed at reducing new HIV infection rates by promoting early diagnosis through setting up free and confidential HIV testing clinics, challenging stigma, discrimination and misinformation associated with HIV /AIDS in the black African churches in Luton. Several black African people were tested. We had reactive results and those who had reactive results were referred to our partner HIV specialist at GUM clinics for further investigation and confirmation. All those people who confirmed positive HIV after further investigation is now on medication and receiving support from our partner GUM clinics staff and our trained volunteers and staff in Luton.

Speaker
Biography:

Benard is an MSM from the LGBTI community Uganda, personsaffected by punitive laws, regulations and policies, severely stigmatized and marginalized, and are disproportionately affected by HIV,This includes men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender persons (TG), sex workers (SW) and their Children and people who inject drugs (PWID) and other underserved communities., August 2009 Nominated Volunteer by Uganda Red Cross Society Management to support Office of the Secretary General in preparation of meetings with   confidential and sensitive clerical services for Partnerships, Management, Governing Board and National Council meetings which exposed me to decision making skills and preparation of such big meetings for an organization,2009-2010 achieved a Diploma in Social Development from Nsamizi Institute of Social Development. He has spent all his education semesters in Uganda where his research allowed him to offer services to all without discrimination.20th February – 20th May 2010 Volunteer Internship with Reproductive Health Uganda (RHU)Peer Educator. After graduation, Benard focused on advocating for the rights of the young people with emphasis on access to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rightsfriendly services without discrimination. 

Abstract:

Introduction: Research shows that young LGBTS in Kampala have less access to HIV information, testing and support thereby being at a risk of HIV infections. Vijana Na Children foundation-Uganda (VINACEF) used social media to provide access to information and support services. This study focussed on observing whether youth LGBTS who access HIV information can seek testing and support from ‘’friendly’’ providers. Methodology: VINACEF approached leaders of LGBTS who helped us to identify LGBTS peers (60 in total aged 19-25 and 40 were male). VINACEF trained them as peer educators in prevention and support. It enrolled them on social media to help with rolling out the opening of peers’ accounts and orienting them on usage. VINACEF peer educators issued coupons to enable ‘’peers’’ for access internet periodically. Educators started social media discussions on HIV awareness and support. Peer Educators issued referrals/treatment vouchers to enable LGBTS peers access free services and more information in ‘’friendly’’ centres. A data tracking tool was developed/used to collect data periodically, analysed it to come up with results. A total of 948 peers were reached during the study. Results: 43% HIV/AIDS related risks awareness, prevention and care among young LGBTS was realised from 51% at baseline. 35% of the target peers had social media accounts at baseline compared to 98% at the end of the study. 91% MSM compared to 71% WSW ably used social media to share concerns with ‘’their peers’’.  61% wSW picked coupons to access testing services compared to 89%MSM. At baseline 42% believed that circumcision stops HIV transmission compared to 8% at the end of the study. 13% of enrolled peers tested positive to HIV, enrolled on ART program and support groups. 24% accessed STIs’ treatment and 88% accessed condoms. Conclusion: Findings suggested that a big proportion of young LGBTS in Kampala can access HIV related information through social media and accelerate HIV awareness among them. Young LGBTS friendly strategies should be explored to increase access to services. Knowledge on circumcision should be intensified and appropriate networks for support are important in warranting young LGBTS access to services.

Speaker
Biography:

Ayesha Noor is an undergraduate under the degree of Social Development and Policy at Habib University, Karachi, Pakistan. Her research interests involve anthropology and sociology. She is keen in observing how different diseases could also become a hindrance to equal opportunities both mentally and physically. She intends to make health policies better in the future so that people are more aware.

Abstract:

In a third world country like Pakistan where social inequalities have always been at its peak due to different mindsets, various beliefs and diversity which intentionally or unintentionally bring differences among people. This umbrella of social injustice did not even spare the health sector. It too came under the shadow of inequalities and misconceptions mainly. Diseases like HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis became a new path which people took to create boundaries. My paper argues that without having adequate amount of knowledge on such diseases, people tend to believe on false myths and make this life a living hell for people suffering. For this purpose, a clear research should be made first of all to define the medical basis of these infections in details so that awareness should be made and people stop believing and stop the inhumane treatments with victims who need most of the care. According to Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, the patients of HIV/AIDS positive in Pakistan range from as young as 15 years to 49 years of age, the total number being around 70,000 including around 8,000 which are women. The general prevalence calculated to be 0.1% and high risk prevalence being 1-2%. According to World Health Organization, 36.7 million people have been affected with this deadly virus by the end of 2015.

Speaker
Biography:

Stella Nakyanzi is a Research Assistant at Makerere Institute of Social Research kampala-Uganda. I have wide researcher in public health and in psychology . I have expertise on marital stability and relationship analysis through scientific direct observations, many of which have been published in peer-reviewed public heath literature. The lessons derived from my work represent a partial basis for the relationship in STIs and HIV counseling movement that aims to improve public health in Uganda. My work has also had a major impact on the development of important concepts on public health sequence analysis In Uganda

Abstract:

Young people in Uganda face various sexual and reproductive health risks including sexually transmitted Infections ( STIs) and unplanned pregnancies .Biggest number of these infections have been caused by the presence of bacterial STIs, extreme poverty levels, poor hygienic behavior, little formal education, unemployment and increased transactional sex for survival among the most vulnerable and poorest adolescents.. Females were more likely to be infected by the four treatable STIs and HIV, despite risky behavior being more common among males The higher prevalence of STIs, including HIV, among adolescent girls cannot be explained by sexual behavior only, as boys reported more risk behavior and were still less affected by STIs. Biological and social factors are definitely of importance. The pro poor strategy was used as main methodology in which a number of poorest adolescents were interviewed in our eight discussions formed groups. It was revealed that the biggest percentage of our adolescents have ever been infected by STIs while committing adultery.

Speaker
Biography:

Peter Kisakye  Kiwanuka is a Research Assistant ,Uganda Virus Institute and has done  a number of research in Public health with much expertise in Sexual transmitted diseases, sexual behavior characteristics and development. He has developed a number of research using social marketing strategies as basic key components in research methodology targeting both adults in communities and youth/children at school level and his concepts has captured a number of research finding in Uganda.

Abstract:

In Uganda young children under sixteen years and adults between 20 to 28 years have Sores or bumps on the genitals or in the oral or rectal area, Painful or burning urination, Discharge from the penis, Unusual or odd-smelling vaginal discharge, Unusual vaginal bleeding, Pain during sex, Sore, swollen lymph nodes, particularly in the groin but sometimes more widespread, Lower abdominal pain aged .With children under 16 years  have clear knowledge of sex and have played sexual intercourse with their counterparts. This early exposure to sexual behavior has resulted into high rate of sexually transmitted infections that has  caused   genital warts, genital herpes, syphilis, gonorrhea , Trichomoniasis and HIV amony adolescents and young adults in Uganda.  Most vulnerable and risk groups includes students,Tax conductors,Mororcylists,and street children. Through study research, it was discovered that most were infected by their mothers during child bath while others from person to person contact in blood, semen, or vaginal and other bodily fluids. The majority of adolescents and young adults have a negative attitude towards the use of condoms for safer protected sex. Increased awareness, hospital visits for blood screening, condom use, proper use of contraceptives, increased sensitization are among recommendations Uganda can take as best interventions for sexually transmitted diseases.

Speaker
Biography:

John Mary Bukenya is a Public health Researcher at Butabika National Refferal Mental Hospital addressing critical mental patients with sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Butabika National Refferal Mental Hospital is housed in the ministry of health research facility that has extensive core services, including a nationally designated mental laboratory and mental diagnosis facilities and relationship studies.

Abstract:

Sexually transmitted  infections (STIs) has caused a big health problem in Uganda. Hundreds of patients with mental health referred to Butabika National Refferal Hospital for treatment and rehabilitation are due to Sexually transmitted Diseases and HIV. There is a close relationship between STIs and HIV and the control of STIs can reduce oh the highest spread of HIV/AIDS. National wide mobilization and awareness campaigns using free condoms distribution targeting people in slums, market centres, universities, schools, blood screening at all health facilities, counseling and testing, capacity building trainings and distribution IEC materials, use of safe microbicides, and vaccines) are basic approaches for immediate interventions using the syndromic approach, targeting the most vulnerable people including students, pregnant mothers, refugees, prisoners for massive treatment. The challenge is not just to develop new interventions, but to identify barriers to the implementation of existing tools, and to devise strategies for ensuring that effective STI control programmes are implemented in Uganda.

Christine Wangombe

Kenya Registered Community Health Nurse, Kenya

Title: Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention
Speaker
Biography:

Christine Wangombe is a 42 year old Registered community Health Nurse with working experience of more than 15 years. She has been working with STDs and HIV programs in the country for 7 years. In this field, she is a trainer, mentor and hands on. STDs being a major burden, many strategies are put in place but still infections are still there.  

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: STD has been stigmatized that clients feel shy to visit a health facility and express themselves to a clinician. This leads to HIV infection which becomes more toxic to unborn babies of pregnant women due to impaired immunity. Complications to unborn babies includes eye infection due to presence of gonorrhea, unborn babies of HIV infected mothers, without proper intervention of ARVs and adherence can cause intra-uterine defects. When these babies are born, they become exposed and without proper ARVs management and adherence, they poses risk of getting opportunistic infections, HIV infection and death. Interventions: In Kenya STDs has become a high burden disease which has impact on our economy. Involvement of Non-governmental organization has assisted in sorting this problem by availing drugs to curb the menace, training of Health care workers and other stake holders on how to deal with the situation and government involvement in the whole process. STD Prevention: This is preventable through early detection by visiting a health facility for general checkups, engaging community teams to use STD questionnaire and refer appropriately for early diagnosis and treatment. HIV Pregnant women are referred for PMTCT services as a strategy to prevent the unborn baby from the disease. Unmarried people e.g adolescent are encouraged to abstain from sex until they are married and faithfulness to follow. Use of proper and consistence use of condom is also encouraged. Presence of STD management algorithm at all health facilities. Training courses on management in cooperated in the health training curriculum at all levels.

  • Types of STDs | Evolution of STDs | Immunopathogenesis
Speaker
Biography:

Tilahun Ferede Asena is a PhD candidate at Department of Statistics, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Hawassa University, Ethiopia.  He holds his Masters in Applied Statistics in 2012 and a Bachelor Degree in Statistics in 2009 at Hawassa University, Ethiopia. Before coming to Hawassa University, he served as a Lecturer from July 2012-October 2014 and worked as a Graduate Assistant from September 2009-June 2010 at Arba Minch University. Tilahun published several papers on international Journals.  His research interests are in Disease Progression Modelling.

Abstract:

The introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of AIDS patients has made significant improvements in patient survival and quality of life during late 1990 (WHO, 2008). Thus, this work focused on estimation of HIV/AIDS Disease progression using parametric Semi-Markov Models and to assess factors affecting HIV/AIDS Disease progression of individuals who are following ART therapy during 2008-2015 with time-dependent covariates in Yirgalim General Hospital, Ethiopia. The findings of this study indicate that HIV/AIDS Disease progression can vary greatly according to patient’s gender, Body Mass Index, and Weight Gain/Loss during the follow-up, Age of the patient and other unknown factors associated. By including time-dependent covariates, we show that these factors had significant differences in HIV/AIDS Disease progression. Finally, these results underscore the need for selecting appropriate waiting time distribution for each transition in order to accurately estimate disease progression. In our study, we found that Parametric Semi-Markov models are a powerful approach for studying chronic diseases and using appropriate waiting times for specific transitions of disease progression.

Speaker
Biography:

Elvis Akomoneh holds a master’s degree in Microbiology and is currently a final-year PhD student at the University of Buea, Cameroon. With a strong background in Microbiology, Molecular Biology and Medical Laboratory Technology, his research interest centers around emerging infectious diseases, an established cause of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Elvis actively embeds civic engagement in his teaching and research. He is the Executive Director of Access Care Foundation, a nongovernmental organization partnering with Higher Education Institutions in community healthcare service delivering to the underserved in Cameroon. Also, he possesses good leadership and managerial skills with an excellent ability to work in a team-based environment. He is a confident, visionary, and conscientious person.

Abstract:

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a polymicrobial, superficial vaginal infection involving a reduction in the amount of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria. Common symptoms include increased fishy smelling vaginal discharge which is usually white or gray in color. Burning with urination may occur and itching is uncommon. Risk factors include douching, new or multiple sex partners, antibiotics, and use of intrauterine device among others. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among sexually active women aged 15-45 years. Vaginal swabs were obtained with the use of sterile swab sticks which were later smeared on clean glass slides and then Gram stained. The stained smears were observed for bacterial morphotypes with the X100 oil immersion objective and the Nugent scoring system was used to determine BV. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 17.0 and were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. Results: A total of 100 women participated in the study with the overall prevalence of BV rated 38%. The prevalence of BV with respect to associated factors was also investigated and it was observed that BV was more prevalent in the age groups 20-25 (48.1%) and 25-29 (44.4%), those who had attained only primary education (60.5%), married women, (68.4%), pregnant women (71.0%), and women who practiced vaginal douching (97.4%). However no statistical significant difference was observed in the prevalence between these parameters (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Conclusively, the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in our study population is 38% and highest among women aged between 25 and 34 years, pregnant women, married women, less educated women and women who practiced poor vaginal hygiene.

  • STDs and Cancer| Drug Resistance and Mutation | Co-Infection of STDs
Speaker
Biography:

Nosiba Abd Elhaleem is a master student in university of Khartoum, and this is her complementary BSc research project. She is an active girl looking for positive change in the world especially in the field of women health and human rights. She is interested in histopathology, cytology and cytopathology, also molecular medicine and genetics. She is working as part time teaching assistant in many universities, and also have an experience in Practical aspects of histopathology and cytology. In addition to that, she had been enrolled to many online courses in order to develop her career. Finally Miss Nosiba is still working on master research and she will publish her work as soon as possible. 

Abstract:

Statement of problem: It’s observed that there are a lot of cervical smears that come to clinics, contain carcinoma cells in combination with schistosoma eggs, and there are a few researches conducted before, and most of them they failed to provide a cutoff about the relationship between schistosomiasis infection and possibility to develop cervical cancer. The purpose of this study is to assess cytological screening pattern in combination with schistosomiasis infestation, among women of White Nile state/Sudan. Methodology: This descriptive study, in which convectional Pap smears were taken from 165 women and also questionnaires are filled to have an idea about factors such as age, history of Schistosomiasis infection, and using of contraceptive pills. All these factors were considered in assessment of cervical cytology. Results: some of women with history of shistosomiasis infection 90(54.4%) and others without 75(45%). Analysis of the cytological smear identified 61 % (102) were normal, 30(18.1%) associated with inflammatory conditions. precancerous lesions were presented among 28(16.9%) of which 8(4.8%) were LISL,13(7.9%) were HISL, 6(3.6%) were reported as atypical squamous cells of unknown significance, and only 1 case considered as atypical granular cells of unknown significance, 5 cases (3%) had malignancies, of which  3 cases representing(60%) were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma, 1(20%) considered as mixed carcinoma and the remaining 1(20%) was reported as micro-invasive carcinoma. The other 5 were unsatisfactory, only 1 case reported as doubtful. Conclusion: Cervical screening program is essential to estimate the actual magnitude of cervical carcinoma and its precursor lesions. Schistosomiasis infection may be protective or risk factor for HPV infection, and therefore for precancerous and cancerous lesions. Also theses lesions may be due to factors other than HPV or Schistosomiasis infections. Recommendations: advanced tools as HPV testing are important to correlate such studies to rule out the effect of HPV in developing cancerous and precancerous lesions.

  • Vertical STD Transmission | Infertility and Birth Defects | Paediatric STDs
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are epidemics and causes enormous health and economic consequences in developing countries. HIV, Syphilis and other STDs are transmissible to the unborn babies and results in adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV and Syphilis among pregnant women in Ado Local Government Area. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May, 2017. 340 pregnant women attending ANC and maternity homes were enrolled. Data was collected using semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire and blood samples from enrollees were screened for HIV and Syphilis using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were done and level of significant set at 5%.

Results: Data analysis was carried out on 337 respondents. Mean age was 29.6 years, 108 (53%) were employed, 274 (81.3%) Christian and 251 (74.5%) had lived in Ado LGA for more than 2 years. Majority, 328 (97.3%) and 204 (60%) have heard of HIV/AIDS and syphilis respectively. Eleven (3.3%), 8 (2.4%) tested positive for HIV and Syphilis respectively. Both HIV and Syphilis were found in 1(0.3%) respondent. Predictors of HIV infection includes multiple sex partners in the last one-year (AOR 13.3, 95% CI. 2.6 - 69.8), giving or receiving money or goods in exchange for sex (AOR5.5, 95%CI. 1.0 - 31.0). Predictors of syphilis infection were forced to have sex in the past 1 year (AOR 29.0, 95% CI. 3.4 - 244.1) and new sexual partner in the past 6 months (AOR 10.2, 95% CI. 1.5 - 68.1) Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV (3.3%) and Syphilis (2.4%) was high in this study population. The exposure of pregnant women to some risk factors underscores the need to intensify effort at providing health education to women of reproductive age on prevention of HIV, Syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases.