The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are also referred to as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or venereal diseases (VD). About 1 million people are affected everyday by sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Most of the STDs do not have symptoms or mild symptoms that are not recognized as STDs, these types of infections are referred to as asymptomatic infections. The pathogens responsible for transmission of STDs spread through infected bodily fluids such as blood, semen or vaginal fluids. They are also transmitted through contact with infected skin and mucous membranes. Both men and women are affected by STDs but in most cases the health issues might be more severe for women.
- Track 1-1 Modes of Transmission
- Track 1-2 Disease Epidemics
- Track 1-3 Drug Resistance and Mutation
- Track 1-4 Clinical Manifestation and Diagnosis
- Track 1-5 Molecular Science and Research
- Track 1-6 Effective Healthcare Systems
- Track 1-7 Public Health Awareness
Viral sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/AIDS, herpes simplex virus (HSV), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B does not have a cure, but the symptoms and the severity of the infection can be controlled through effective treatment. There are several drug classes of antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV which targets different stages of HIV life cycle to slow down the progression of the disease. Unlike bacterial STDs, viral STDs may harbour infectious pathogens in latent reservoirs in the body which may relapse in the future as an active infection. Hence, following proper treatment regimen is important for preventing serious health complications associated with the disease.
- Track 2-1 HIV/AIDS
- Track 2-2 Hepatitis B
- Track 2-3 Human papillomavirus (HPV)
- Track 2-4 Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
The bacterial and viral STDs both vary in treatment and can be cured with antibiotics. Syphilis caused by bacterium Treponema pallidum is predominant in men than women, the mortality rate of syphilis infection is relatively higher in men. Gonorrhea is one of the oldest known and second most reported sexually transmitted disease globally. It has developed resistance towards the antibiotics used to treat the infection and poses major health threat worldwide. Due to development of resistance to the existing medicines used to treat them, newer treatment strategies are required. When the bacterial STDs are not treated or diagnosed for a long time, it can lead to sterility, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), urethritis and long-term health complications.
- Track 3-1 Chlamydia
- Track 3-2 Donovanosis
- Track 3-3 Gonorrhea
- Track 3-4 Syphilis
- Track 3-5 Chancroid
- Track 3-6 Shigellosis
- Track 3-7 Lymphogranuloma venereum
- Track 3-8 Mycoplasma genitalium
Fungal and protozoal STDs can be cured with antifungals and antibiotics. Trichomoniasis is a common parasitic infection caused by protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis which affects the lower genital tract. The symptoms may appear from five to 28 days after exposure and are characterized by irritation or severe inflammation. About 85% women affected by trichomoniasis reported no symptoms. Pregnant women with the infection most probably have pre-term delivery with low birth weight. Candidiasis is a fungal infection transmitted through sexual contact that affects skin and mucous membranes. About 75% women will suffer from this infection once in their life time while about 40-45% women will have two to three episodes. Candidiasis can be treated with antifungal medications.
- Track 4-1 Candidiasis
- Track 4-2 Pubic Lice
- Track 4-3 Scabies
- Track 4-4 Trichomoniasis
Socio-economical, biological, behavioral and many other factors influence the incidence and prevalence of STDs in different regions. In many developing countries, STDs are hyperendemic. More than 30 viral, bacterial, parasitic diseases have been known to be transmitted through sexual contact among these eight pathogens are reported to have high incidence of sexually transmitted disease. Four of these infections, gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, syphilis is caused by bacteria and are curable with effective antibiotics in single-dose regimen. Hepatitis B, human simplex virus (HSV), human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) caused by virus are incurable and the symptoms can be alleviated with treatment. STDs are thought to influence host population dynamics and evolution differently than the other diseases.
- Track 5-1 Incidence of STDs
- Track 5-2 Population and Transmission Dynamics
- Track 5-3 Prevalence of STDs
- Track 5-4 Effects of Biological Factors
- Track 5-5 STDs Interventions
- Track 5-6 Socio-economic & Behavioral Factors influencing STDs
- Track 5-7 STDs among young adults and adolescents
- Track 5-8 Mortality and Morbidity rates of STDs
The immune system helps in elimination of the invading microbial pathogens in the body through a series of defense mechanism. The innate immune response of the body provides first line of defense against the pathogens which is fast and non-specific response while adaptive immune response is specific and slow. The study of immunopathogenesis allows us to explore the disease transmission process, pathogen-host interactions, immune defense against the STD pathogens. This allows us to understand the pathological condition and progression of the disease and the genetic factors influencing the immune defense against STD transmission. The genetic factors influence can be used for the development of gene therapies that triggers immune reaction against the disease-causing pathogens in the body.
- Track 6-1 Pathogen-Host Interaction
- Track 6-2 Immune Invasion by STD Pathogens
- Track 6-3 Innate Immune Response
- Track 6-4 Adaptive Immune Response
- Track 6-5 Immune Response on Disease Transmission
- Track 6-6 Influence of Genetic Factors
HIV infection advances in three various stages when left untreated. With each stage, the health of the HIV-infected person worsens and gradually HIV destroys the immune system developing into acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Development of HIV from one stage to another can be slowed down or prevented through antiretroviral treatment (ART). During the acute HIV infection, the HIV attacks the immune system and destroys the CD4 cells. Chronic HIV infection also referred to as asymptomatic HIV infection or clinical latency is the second stage of HIV infection where the infection multiply in the body at very low levels and the infected person may not show any HIV-related illness at this stage. The HIV infection develops into AIDS also known as symptomatic HIV infection, as the immune system fails, CD4 levels in blood decreases and symptoms of HIV worsens over time.
- Track 7-1 Acute HIV Infection
- Track 7-2 Chronic HIV Infection
- Track 7-3 Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Among the STDs which lead to cancer, certain types of human papillomavirus infection are found to cause cervical cancer in women and penile cancer in men. It is also responsible for the development of oropharyngeal cancer in both sexes. People living with HIV/AIDS have weakened immune system and are susceptible to several types of cancer such as cervical cancer, kaposi’s sarcoma and so on. Being affected by Hepatitis B increases the risk of liver cancer. Vaccination is available to protect against several types of high-risk HPV which can cause cancer but does not protect against all HPV strains. Proper diagnosis, treatment and vaccination among the high-risk populations is a key tool for prevention of cancers associated with STDs.
- Track 8-1 Cervical Cancer
- Track 8-2 Liver Cancer
- Track 8-3 Lymphoma
- Track 8-4 Oropharyngeal Cancer
- Track 8-5 Prostate Cancer
- Track 8-6 Anal Cancer
- Track 8-7 Penile Cancer
- Track 8-8 Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer
Early diagnosis of STDs increases the chance for effective treatment for individuals and reduces the complications caused due to untreated STDs. In high-income countries, accurate diagnosis is available for asymptomatic infections whereas in low- and middle-income countries, such tests are difficult to access due to unavailability of low cost, reliable point of care tests (POCTs). Rapid testing for HIV and syphilis offers accurate and quick results in resource limited settings which has the potential to increase the rate of diagnosis and treatment without delay in low- and middle-income countries.
- Track 9-1 Syndromic Diagnosis
- Track 9-2 Rapid HIV Test
- Track 9-3 Nucleic Acid Test (NAT)
- Track 9-4 Pap Smear
- Track 9-5 Cervical Biopsy
- Track 9-6 Serological Diagnosis
- Track 9-7 Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
- Track 9-8 HIV Differentiation Assay
- Track 9-9 Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFA) Test
- Track 9-10 Point of Care Test (POCT)
STDs can be prevented through vaccination, screening and promoting safer sexual behavior, early health-care seeking behavior, prevention and care activities. Pregnant women affected with STD must follow treatment regimens properly to prevent the vertical transmission of STDs. Most STDs cannot be cured and leads to infertility, birth defects in infants, co-infections, opportunistic infections and many other health issues. For viral STDs, there is no complete cure, but progression of the disease can be controlled by combinational antiretroviral therapy which use multiple antiretroviral drugs to decrease the disease proliferation and reduce other opportunistic infections. Gene therapy involves gene editing approaches which can provide a better and safer alternative to other existing drugs. Novel and emerging treatment strategies can provide a solution for the increasing drug resistance in the pathogens.
- Track 10-1 Public Health Programmes
- Track 10-2 Primary and Secondary Prevention Programmes
- Track 10-3 Comprehensive STD Programmes
- Track 10-4 Safer Sexual Practices
- Track 10-5 Expedited Partner Therapy
- Track 10-6 Preconception and Prenatal Care
- Track 10-7 Challenges faced by Health-Care Facilities
- Track 10-8 Antiretroviral Treatment
- Track 10-9 Antibiotics and Antifungals
- Track 10-10 Combination Therapy
- Track 10-11 Immunotherapy
Nanotechnology is the science and engineering of structures that are 1–100 nm in size. Nanomedicine is a branch of medicine which is employed in preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Using nanoparticles, effective timely release of drugs to the infected areas/organs are possible which improves specificity of drug action. HIV/AIDS patients face a major problem where the virus resides in latent reservoirs makes it hard to reach for drugs. Nanoparticles can travel through the body with less interruption which aids in effective release of drugs at HIV virus reservoirs at the specific target. Therapeutic nanoparticles have higher specificity for the drug targets which enhances the treatment efficiency and better cure for the affected individual.
- Track 11-1 Drug Delivery System
- Track 11-2 Drug Nanosuspension
- Track 11-3 Therapeutic Nanomaterials
- Track 11-4 Nanoparticle based Vaccines
Plants contain a wide range of substances that are used for treating chronic as well as acute infectious diseases. Many modern drugs in use have been developed from the medicinal plants which has been used by indigenous people. Phytochemicals are chemicals secreted by plants that have disease preventive properties that is used by the plants to protect itself from diseases. Antimicrobial activity of the plant sources can act as a better drug for the strains that has developed multiple drug resistance to antibiotics. Many bacterial STDs can be combated using phytochemicals produced by the medicinal plants. Pharmacological effects of the bio active compounds in the plants must be explored to produce a cure for the multiple drug resistant bacterial STDs.
- Track 12-1 Antimicrobial Effect of Phytochemicals
- Track 12-2 Phytoconstituents and its Effects on STDs
- Track 12-3 Novel Therapeutic Drugs
- Track 12-4 Multi-Drug Resistance and Phytochemical Drugs
Prophylactic vaccines are those used for prevention while therapeutic vaccines are used for treatment of the specific disease. HIV therapeutic vaccines are available for improving body’s immune response against HIV in person living with HIV/AIDS. Therapeutic vaccines are being developed by researchers to decrease the progression of the disease and achieving undetectable HIV viral load in blood. Major prevention tool against sexually transmitted diseases which are incurable is vaccination. HPV, hepatitis B are preventable by vaccines while for HIV and HSV vaccination are in advanced stages of development with few into early stages of clinal trial. Vaccination against several viral STDs have proven to be more efficient in the prevention of the disease. Widespread immunization with safe and effective vaccines will serve as an important tool in control and eradication of the disease.
- Track 13-1 Immunization
- Track 13-2 Therapeutic Vaccination
- Track 13-3 Pre-exposure Prophylaxis
- Track 13-4 Post-exposure Prophylaxis
- Track 13-5 HPV vaccination
- Track 13-6 HIV and Herpes Vaccine Development
- Track 13-7 Advancements in Vaccine Technology
Continuous progress in drug development and research field is necessary for invention of new drugs and drug targets for STDs. Identification of the drug target is the basis of the drug development process, this can be done through various computational approaches. HIV drug targets different steps in life cycle of the virus as it infects CD4 T-lymphocytes or another target cell. Gene editing technology such as CRISPR seeks to eliminate the latent as well active HIV infection in the human which would be more effective in the treatment of AIDS. Various viral inhibitors such as entry inhibitors, maturation inhibitors are designed to inhibit the replication of the virus inside the host cell.
- Track 14-1 Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
- Track 14-2 Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
- Track 14-3 Protease inhibitors (PIs)
- Track 14-4 Integrase inhibitors (INSTIs)
- Track 14-5 Fusion inhibitors (FIs)
- Track 14-6 Chemokine receptor antagonists (CCR5 antagonists)
- Track 14-7 Entry inhibitors (CD4-directed post-attachment inhibitors)
- Track 14-8 Therapeutic Vaccination Development
- Track 14-9 Gene Editing Technology
Co-infection is a condition where a person actively infected with STD is infected with another STD. Super infection or re-infection is the condition where a person with HIV infection acquires infection with the sub-type of HIV. This condition affects the treatment which deteriorates the health of the affected individual. When a STI infected individual is prone to another infection due to immune compromise they are less able to mount a protective response against sexually transmitted pathogens. People living with HIV are at high-risk of tuberculosis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C which complicates the disease condition and treating co-infected individuals can be challenging and the treatment methods must be analyzed and modified to their needs.
- Track 15-1 Opportunistic Infection
- Track 15-2 Superinfection/Reinfection
- Track 15-3 Multi-drug resistant TB and HIV
- Track 15-4 Non-Communicable Diseases
- Track 15-5 AIDS-defining Illness
- Track 15-6 HIV and Hepatitis Infection
- Track 15-7 Cardiovascular and Neurological Conditions
Vertical transmission also known as mother to child transmission (MTCT) of sexually transmitted diseases is the process of transfer of infection from a mother to infant perinatally or postnatally. Women are at high risk of intrapartum and postpartum complications than uninfected women and STDs in pregnant women are a major cause of maternal death in some regions. When the mother is infected with chlamydia, gonorrhea or genital herpes, the disease is transmitted to the baby when it passes through the infected birth canal. Postnatal transmission of STDs is possible through breastfeeding the baby. When an infant contracts STD from mother, it can affect the skin, eyes, mouth, central nervous system and can also lead to organ failure. With treatment, the chances of transmitting HIV from mother to infant is low.
- Track 16-1 Perinatal STD Transmission
- Track 16-2 Clinical Manifestation
- Track 16-3 STD Acquisition during Pregnancy
- Track 16-4 Infection of Newborns
- Track 16-5 Early Infant Diagnosis
- Track 16-6 Effects on Women
- Track 16-7 Paediatric HIV
- Track 16-8 Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission
Gonorrhea and chlamydia infection during pregnancy increases the risk of pre-term delivery or miscarriage. Asymptomatic STDs, when left untreated may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which affects the fallopian tubes and other reproductive organs in females and causes infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pre-term delivery, miscarriage. When the mother is infected by STD, the disease is transmitted from the mother to fetus or new born, this is referred to as mother to child transmission (MTCT) and the child may suffer from defects such as blindness, deafness, bone deformities and intellectual disability. In males, infertility is most common side effect of the disease. Some STDs like gonorrhea and HIV may lead to inflammation of the epididymis or orchitis that leads to infertility in males.
- Track 17-1 Pre-term Delivery
- Track 17-2 Ectopic Pregnancy
- Track 17-3 Birth Defects in Child
- Track 17-4 Stillbirth and Miscarriage
- Track 17-5 Infertility in Men and Women
- Track 17-6 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
STDs are a major health issue that affects mostly young people, not only in developing countries but in developed countries also. People living with HIV/AIDS suffer social stigmatization, misinformation which mostly leads to mental trauma. About one-third of HIV infected people suffer from depression and anxiety. This negatively impacts their quality of life and remains a factor for poor adherence to treatment regimens which may lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancies, opportunistic infections and other complications. Pre- and post-test counselling plays an important role in psychosocial stabilization for individuals infected with STDs. Prevention counselling among the high-risk individuals encourages them to seek treatment and follow safer sexual practices. Thus, proper assessment and counselling can help people address their problems and get properly treated for their condition.
- Track 18-1 Risk Reduction Counselling
- Track 18-2 De-stigmatization
- Track 18-3 Behavioral Assessment
- Track 18-4 Behavioral Assessment
- Track 18-5 Pre-test and Post-test Counselling
- Track 18-6 Family Counselling
- Track 18-7 Motivational Therapy
- Track 18-8 Child-focused Counselling
- Track 18-9 Public Awareness on Sexual Health
- Track 18-10 Comprehensive Sexuality Education