Nosiba Abd Elhaleem
University of Khartoum, Sudan
Nosiba Abd Elhaleem is a master student in university of Khartoum, and this is her complementary BSc research project. She is an active girl looking for positive change in the world especially in the field of women health and human rights. She is interested in histopathology, cytology and cytopathology, also molecular medicine and genetics. She is working as part time teaching assistant in many universities, and also have an experience in Practical aspects of histopathology and cytology. In addition to that, she had been enrolled to many online courses in order to develop her career. Finally Miss Nosiba is still working on master research and she will publish her work as soon as possible.
Statement of problem: It’s observed that there are a lot of cervical smears that come to clinics, contain carcinoma cells in combination with schistosoma eggs, and there are a few researches conducted before, and most of them they failed to provide a cutoff about the relationship between schistosomiasis infection and possibility to develop cervical cancer. The purpose of this study is to assess cytological screening pattern in combination with schistosomiasis infestation, among women of White Nile state/Sudan. Methodology: This descriptive study, in which convectional Pap smears were taken from 165 women and also questionnaires are filled to have an idea about factors such as age, history of Schistosomiasis infection, and using of contraceptive pills. All these factors were considered in assessment of cervical cytology. Results: some of women with history of shistosomiasis infection 90(54.4%) and others without 75(45%). Analysis of the cytological smear identified 61 % (102) were normal, 30(18.1%) associated with inflammatory conditions. precancerous lesions were presented among 28(16.9%) of which 8(4.8%) were LISL,13(7.9%) were HISL, 6(3.6%) were reported as atypical squamous cells of unknown significance, and only 1 case considered as atypical granular cells of unknown significance, 5 cases (3%) had malignancies, of which 3 cases representing(60%) were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma, 1(20%) considered as mixed carcinoma and the remaining 1(20%) was reported as micro-invasive carcinoma. The other 5 were unsatisfactory, only 1 case reported as doubtful. Conclusion: Cervical screening program is essential to estimate the actual magnitude of cervical carcinoma and its precursor lesions. Schistosomiasis infection may be protective or risk factor for HPV infection, and therefore for precancerous and cancerous lesions. Also theses lesions may be due to factors other than HPV or Schistosomiasis infections. Recommendations: advanced tools as HPV testing are important to correlate such studies to rule out the effect of HPV in developing cancerous and precancerous lesions.